Steam Locomotive 78 1001
At the start of the Fifties, acceleration of the suburban and city express passenger service enjoyed a high priority on the new German Federal Railroad but there were clearly limits to the roster of tank locomotives that could be used for this purpose. Locomotives with tenders were by contrast available in large quantities and the opportunity presented itself to investigate the large roster of class 38.10-40 (Prussian P 8) locomotives for this purpose. The DB therefore undertook the experiment to convert this type of locomotive into a tank locomotive in order to do away with the need to turn locomotives at destination stations. The firm Krauss-Maffei was engaged in 1951 at the suggestion of Professor Mölbert, Hannover, and in cooperation with the railroad's central office in Munich to equip road numbers 38 2890 and 2919 with short tenders.
The boiler and running gear remained almost unchanged. Just the front truck was changed by the installation of a new pivot housing to obtain more side play. In addition, self-acting brake adjustment equipment was installed. The cab was now enclosed on all sides and was a completely new welded construction. The newly developed two-axle short tender was connected to the locomotive by means of a powerful drawbar, which had brake adjustment equipment in the style of a Krauss-Helmholtz frame. Coal could be taken through a round opening in the back wall of the cab, which was sealed to the tender by means of a rubber bellows. Both locomotives were rated after the conversion as tank locomotives with the wheel arrangement 4-6-4T and were therefore given the road numbers 78 1001 (former 38 2919) and 1002 (former 38 2890). They were certified for a permissible maximum speed of 100 km/h / 63 mph in both directions but in reverse at speeds over 60 km/h / 38 mph, the units were supposed to have been troublesome.
More units were not converted because these investments were no longer worth it due to progressive structural changes in the railroad. Initially, both units ran in the Munich area starting in 1953. Later they were used in the Lake Constance area. Both locomotives were taken out of service in 1959 and retired in 1961.