The Class 232 - Ludmilla in Germany.
In contrast to the West, where electric motive power was favored, the majority of Eastern Europe railroads concentrated on diesel locomotives to replace uneconomical steam operation. A new family of large diesel locomotives from Russia, among them the present day Germany Railroad, Inc.'s class 232, was purchased between 1972 and 1982 in consultation with the RGW in several series for East Germany's German State Railroad. This immense, six-axle, almost 21 meter / 69 foot long diesel electric locomotive with its 6 traction motors had a continuous rating of up to 2,940 kilowatts / 3,943 horsepower and a maximum speed of up to 140 km/h / 88 mph, depending on the series. These locomotives were used in East Germany for both freight trains and express trains as long as the locomotives had train heating. Due to delivery problems from the Soviet builder in Woroschilowgrad, the latter were not installed in all locomotives. Their great weight and axle load of 20 metric tons did not allow them to be used everywhere, and the DR had to use the classes 118 and 119 depending on the reconstruction of a route. The DR crews gave this Russian locomotive the name "Ludmilla", which apparently came from the maintenance facility in Leipzig and which is still popularly used for this family of locomotives.
There were 709 units of the class 132, the latter class 232, built. They were taken over by the DB AG - also due to their built-in train heating - and are still used in many areas, while the other series have been retired or sold. Several locomotives were completely overhauled and given new motors. They represent the new classes 233, 234, and 241 and provide service in Germany along with class 232 Russian Ludmilla locomotives.